MY ART MANIFESTO 8
There are a few more important details about energy, which I will talk about first. I mentioned before that there was nothing other than the energy expanding rapidly after the Bigbang, so there was no sitiuation hindering swelling. This means that before the Bigbang, there was nothing but energy, and there was no obstacle for the Bigbang. So, whether this energy was gradually increasing or its amount was constant, if there was no different effect, there should not be a Bigbang. Indeed! There was no space, no outside space around it that would cause it to be trapped, to hinder it. So it was possible that in a constant way, it could continue infinitely as it was. Why did it deteriorate its current situation? Why would it explode?
But the explosion happened, the universe came into existence, and we are here. This, in turn, the energy-exploding (swelling) effect indicates a change within. We already know from the literature that there is nothing outside. Let me restate a few sentences from the scientific explanations I have given before on this subject.
There was neither space nor time “before” the Big Bang, as stated by Richard A. Muller in Now, Physics of Time, p.140.
“If the universe is expanding, it is expanding towards what? Towards nothing; it does not need to be in something else; the universe is space, and there is no need for such thing as “outside”. (Sean Carroll, Cosmological History of Time, p.68)
If there was nothing but energy, then what happened to cause that energy broke the singularity state? This can only happen in two ways: either there is a mechanism in the energy, just like a timed bomb detonator, and it explodes, or the energy comes directly to the field of existence in the form of an explosion, and exists and creates the universe. However, both of these possibilities mean that energy was exposed to to an outside effect, and this leads to the need of an explanation for all these. It will also raise questions regarding laws of physics and the Bigbang theory.
In fact, the real question mark about existence is the mathematics underlying the laws of physics. For some reason, there is not much emphasis on mathematics. We are only concerned with the various states of energy in relation to the universe and existence. We examine beings from particles that are composed of a conserved and unchanging energy to stars, and draw conclusions. However, we can do all this with the help of the laws of physics, that is, with the help of mathematics. Therefore, mathematics is a very important question mark. So, let’s read from what scientists say on this subject, how important is the connection of mathematics with the energy that makes up the universe.
Let me first quote from the book On the Laws of Physics by Richard Phillips Feynman, the Nobel Prize-winning theoretical physicist who formulated the theory of “Quantum Electrodynamics” (QED).
“I want to emphasize that the beauties of nature cannot be explained in a way that anyone without a deep understanding of mathematics can feel. I’m sorry, but that seems to be the case.” (Richard P. Feynman, On the Laws of Physics, p.48)
“It is very difficult for those who do not know mathematics to really feel the beauty, the deepest beauty of nature. Unfortunately, physics has to include math.
Physicists cannot turn to another language. If you want to learn about nature, to understand it, you need to understand the language it speaks. This is the only way nature delivers its messages. (Richard P. Feynman, On the Laws of Physics, pp.67-68)
Now let me quote from the famous book The First Three Minutes, which describes the beginning of the Big Bang, by Steven Weinberg, a Nobel Prize-winning theoretical physicist. By the way, Weinberg unfortunately passed away on July 23 last year. I am very sorry, may God have mercy upon him.
“Protons are positively charged, neutrons are slightly heavier and have no electric charge. They exist in roughly the same proportion as one proton and neutron for every billion of electrons, positrons, and photons. This number, one billion photons per nuclear particle, is a very important quantity that must be taken from observation in order to calculate the standard model of the universe. The discovery of cosmic background radiation was actually the measurement of that number.” (Steven Weinberg, First Three Minutes, p.4)
The universe has very few core particles during the first frame period: approximately one proton or neutron for every billion photons, electrons or neutrons. To predict the abundances of chemical elements formed in the early universe, we also have to know the relative ratios of protons and neutrons. (Weinberg, ibid, p.99)
While explaining the Bigbang, Weinberg took the one-hundredth of a second time as a basis, and started his explanation from that period of time. “The temperature of the universe is one hundred billion degrees. It is like an inseparable soup of matter and radiation; each particle in this soup collides with other particles very fast. Thus, despite its rapid expansion, the universe is in a state of almost complete thermal equilibrium. Therefore, the particles that make up the universe obey the laws of statistical mechanics. (Weinberg, ibid, p.98)
Let me report this interesting situation: energy is the first thing that those people all have in common, whether they believe in God and tell about intelligent design, or just believe in nature and say it came into being by chance. The second thing is order. Bigbang or any other theory, no matter how the universe started, there is absolute order in the transformation of energy transforming from state to state! The scientists, who are the extreme atheists, who say that universe came into existence by chance, also accept and express the existence of the order. In short, no one disputes the order in Existence.
I drew attention to mathematics because it is very important because of this situation. It seems that just having energy is not enough for the existence of the universe. According to science, all its movements and transformations are obliged to the laws of mathematical physics, to order. Weinberg reports that even in a hundredth of a second, mathematical ratios are in effect. In short, for the universe to exist, mathematics is necessary along with energy.
I asked a question in the previous section. “If the laws of physics are mathematical orders, what started in the Bigbang? Physics or math?” Let me continue with this question.
Mathematics is quantitative science. Therefore, if there is nothing to count, logically there is no mathematics, for science tells us that in the beginning there was nothing but energy itself. So let’s ask the question in a simpler and more understandable way. Would there be mathematics if energy did not exist?
This question has three answers. First, yes! If the Bigbang started with mathematical laws of physics, then there was mathematics early in the beginning!Two, no! Mathematics is numeric, since before the Bigbang there was nothing to count, so there cannot be mathematics. The third option is the most common acceptance today; if the universe couldn’t exist without both, now that the universe exists, then the Bigbang had both!
Of course, these issues can be discussed more and more. I will continue with the details in the following section.
(Translated from Turkish by Semih AYDIN)